母乳喂养的益处

母乳喂养的重要性是世界公认的。世界卫生组织建议妈妈在宝宝出生头六个月全母乳喂养宝宝之后再辅以其它固体食物,至少坚持两年。但是,除了其营养价值之外,母乳喂养还有以下几项好处: 保护宝宝不受感染,调节和提高妈妈和宝宝的生理系统,有助于增进母婴情感。
对妈妈的好处

对妈妈的好处

产后早期妈妈和宝宝之间的身体接触有利于延长泌乳期,适应妈妈的胃肠道变化,增加哺乳期间的能量需求。母乳喂养让妈妈更关注宝宝的需求,可加速产后产后子宫复旧,减少出血的风险。有利于妈妈恢复孕前体重,降低患卵巢癌、乳腺癌、心血管疾病和 2 型糖尿病的风险。

母乳喂养具有长期抗应激作用; 每次给宝宝亲喂母乳,妈妈的血压和皮质醇水平都会下降,与妈妈用奶瓶喂宝宝相比,亲喂时妈妈的身体应激反应皮质醇的升高幅度较小。与不进行母乳喂养或不生育的同龄妇女相比,亲喂母乳的妈妈可能会更镇定、更好相处。其实,母乳喂养有利于妈妈和宝宝的互动,让妈妈在宝宝出生后立即与宝宝亲肤接触,与宝宝相处得更久,亲喂时间更长。

对宝宝的益处

对宝宝的益处

母乳既为宝宝的成长和发育提供最佳营养成分(脂肪、乳糖、蛋白质和宏量营养素),又能完全保护(生化和细胞成分)宝宝不受感染。与配方奶喂养的宝宝相比,足月宝宝喝母乳可显著改善其营养状况,促进胃肠道成熟和神经发育,不易受感染,不易患有慢性病。母乳喂养早产宝宝还有其它益处,包括减少患新生儿坏死性小肠结肠炎(NEC)、 肠内喂养不耐症、慢性肺病、早产儿视网膜病变、神经发育迟缓和 再入院治疗的风险。

就宝宝发育而言,母乳喂养宝宝有许多好处,包括促进神经发育、提高行为等级、减少患肥胖症和成年 2 型糖尿病的风险。此外,母乳喂养还可促进宝宝口腔和面部的正常生长,包括促进牙列、口周和咬肌活动和上颚生长。降低中耳炎的风险。

母乳喂养还有利于增进母婴感情。吸吮等亲肤接触和触觉刺激乳头会导致缩宫素(射乳反射的关键激素)的释放,可培养母婴感情。缩宫素的释放增加了流入妈妈乳房和乳头区的血流量,使皮肤温度升高,给宝宝营造温暖和滋养的环境。

研究摘要
研究摘要
Breastfeeding and maternal and infant health outcomes in developed countries (英语)

We reviewed the evidence on the effects of breastfeeding on short- and long-term infant and maternal health outcomes in developed countries. ...

Ip S, Chung M, Raman G, Chew P, Magula N, DeVine D, Trikalinos T, Lau J (2007)

Evid Rep Technol Assess (153):1-186
An exclusively human milk-based diet is associated with a lower rate of necrotizing enterocolitis than a diet of human milk and bovine milk-based products (英语)

To evaluate the health benefits of an exclusively human milk-based diet compared with a diet of both human milk and bovine milk-based products in extremely ...

Sullivan S, Schanler RJ, Kim JH, Patel AL, Trawöger R, Kiechl-Kohlendorfer U, Chan GM, Blanco CL, Abrams S, Cotten CM, Laroia N, Ehrenkranz RA, Dudell G, Cristofalo EA, Meier P, Lee ML, Rechtman DJ, Lucas A (2010)

J Pediatr. (156):562-7
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母乳喂养的“正常”范围

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母乳的益处

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